Risk factors in chronic kidney disease and its high incidence in older adults

Those who have a family history of this type of cancer or in their lifestyle have bad habits such as smoking, are at higher risk.

The specialist pointed out that kidney cancer is a tumor, the most common is that it is clear cell.

Some bad habits, genetic factors or preexisting diseases related to the condition can make a person more likely to develop kidney cancer.

Patients with obesity, hypertension or those who have been exposed to kidney failure treatments, as well as those who have a family history of this type of cancer or in their lifestyle have bad habits such as smoking, have a higher risk of presenting this pathology.

Dr. Enrique Ortiz Kidd, nephrologist and director of the nephrology division of the Veterans Hospital. Photo: PressReader

To emphasize this theme, the Journal of Medicine and Public Health (MSP) interviewed Dr. Enrique Ortiz Kidd, nephrologist and director of the nephrology division of the Veterans Hospital, who emphasized that “a proportion is mostly recorded in men, being 1.7 men for each woman, and patients between 60 and 64 years would have a higher incidence than a 40-year-old patient, however, it can occur in young patients”

The specialist pointed out that kidney cancer is a tumor, the most common is that it is clear cell, normally visible in the cortex, where it is normally evidenced by a renal mass located in one of the two kidneys.

The symptoms in kidney cancer are usually late and are usually blood in the urine (hematuria) that can be microscopic, a palpable mass or flank pain, so the expert in nephrology emphasizes that close attention should be paid, especially if it is counted as other risk factors, since it is not common for the triad to appear until the condition is already very advanced

“When symptoms occur, it is usually because the condition is already metastasizing. This is a condition that is among the ten most common cancers, known as a kidney tumor”he pointed.

Its incidence, which is the appearance of new cases, is around 450,000 new cases in the United States, and it has a ratio in men of 1.7 men for every woman, between 60 and 64 years of age, people would have a higher incidence than a 40-year-old patient. However, it can occur in young patients.

Dr. Kidd indicated that a solid renal mass is commonly discovered, that is to say, that it does not contain liquids inside and in this way a diagnosis or prevention alert is more effective, “One is already able with the sonogram to say it is a mass renal what appears and if it is full of liquid or simply full of solid because the material looks different, echogenic, that is, with many white dots, so the image allows to determine if it is a cyst or a tumor and this represents a very important clinical aspect”

There are cystic kidney diseases that could have abnormal cysts, with thick walls, and for these cases, follow-up is essential because patients can develop kidney cancer if they are not seen and treated at an early stage.

Generally, the appearance of renal complications is related to genetic factors, however, patients with hypertension, obesity, smokers or patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a potential risk.

The nephrologist also highlighted the need to carefully monitor the process of dialysis patients, since he argued that it is very common for nephrologists to find malignant tumors in patients who are on dialysis due to dialysis cystic disease, being almost 30% , so the development of cysts during dialysis puts the normally young patient at more potential risk of kidney cancer.

In addition, he emphasized that the older the population collectively, the greater the risk of increasing the incidence of the condition.

“In 2021, for the first time in history, there will be more people over 65 years of age than people under 5 years of age, which means that there is greater survival and fewer births. So doctors have to turn their vision and go towards more geriatric part of medicine because chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in the older population”pointed out the specialist.

In the case of acute kidney disease, which can manifest in patients infected with COVID, acute kidney failure can occur without the patient having had previous complications.

It commonly develops sepsis or a blood infection or a viral infection so severe that it causes a collapse of the kidneys and causes hypotension, appearing what is known as a sitokine storm or inflammatory substances that cause damage to the renal system, which manifests itself as acute kidney failure and frequently needs dialysis to survive.

Caring for the patient with kidney problems

For the specialist, the greatest concern is focused on transplant patients, since they are patients who are taking their immunosuppressants regularly, so their immune status is weak and they require greater care because if they become infected with any virus, their condition can be aggravated.

The recommendation for family members and caregivers is that the transplant patient be under extreme protection.

Similarly, for the elderly patient, fundamental care and support is required, since they are more frail, weak, their nutritional capacity is usually altered and their cognitive aspect requires comfortable conversations so that they can understand their condition and the care it implies.

In the case of patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertensive patients, continuous urine tests are important because urine is the kidney’s window and thus any anomaly can be detected in time, explained the expert.

“In the urine we detect protein, which must be negative, then we go to the blood and in the creatinine substance we can determine if there are disorders in the kidney, if it rises it is because the filtration in the kidney decreases”he told MSP.

It is very important to understand the disease because it is very long, although for those who take good care of themselves and learn to take care of themselves, therapies such as home hemodialysis, safe dialysis techniques, will soon come. However, it should not be forgotten that the best method is prevention and to achieve this, follow-up with the primary care physician should always be included, including a urine test.